The 2017 progress report to the African Union Assembly on the Implementation of the Malabo Declaration

Inaugural Biennial Review Report of the African Union Commission on the Implementation of the Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared prosperity and Improved Livelihoods.

Out of the forty seven (47) Member States that reported progress in implementing the Malabo declaration, only twenty (20) reported to be on-track for achieving the commitments by 2025.

Those twenty (20) countries, which obtained the minimum overall score of 3.94 out of 10 to be on track (the 2017 benchmark) for implementing commitments of the Malabo Declaration by 2025, include: Benin (4.3), Botswana (4.4), Burundi (4.7), Burkina Faso (4.2), Cape Verde (4.6), Ethiopia (5.3), Kenya (4.8), Malawi (4.9), Mali (5.6), Mauritania (4.8), Mauritius (5.0), Morocco (5.5), Mozambique (4.1), Namibia (4.1), Rwanda (6.1), Seychelles (4.0), South Africa (4.1), Swaziland (4.0), Togo (4.9), and Uganda (4.5).

From these results, Rwanda has the highest score of 6.1 on Agricultural Transformation in Africa, and is the 2017 best performing country in implementing the seven (7) commitments of the June 2014 Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared prosperity and Improved Livelihoods.

The average score for the whole Africa, based on the 47 country reports, is 3.60 which indicates the Union is not on-track in meeting the CAADP/ Malabo commitments when assessed against the 3.94 benchmark for 2017.

Performance of the Regions

Central Africa

Included in this region are the nine (9) countries namely: Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe. Under the joint coordination of ECCAS and SADC, all of these countries submitted their reports representing 100% submission rate. The average score for the region is 2.35 which indicates that region is not on-track in meeting the CAADP/Malabo commitments when assessed against the 3.94 benchmark for 2017. None of the member states in the region is on-track in meeting the Malabo commitments.

Out of the Malabo 7 themes assessed in this BR, the Central Africa region is on-track only on one commitment, the one on re-commitment to CAADP process. The region needs to pay attention to the other six commitment areas where it was not on-track. These areas are: i) Enhancing investment finance in agriculture; ii) Ending hunger by 2025; iii) Halving poverty through agriculture by 2025; iv) Enhancing resilience to climate variability v) Boosting intra-African trade in agriculture commodities and vi) mutual Accountability for action and result. The region needs to consider and implement the following recommendations: - ECCAS to increase investment and finance in agriculture; -The region should improve access of men and women engaged in agriculture and to financial and advisory services; -The region should improve its data collection system, as most of indicators were not reported.

Eastern Africa

Included in this region are twelve (12) countries namely: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda. Under the joint coordination of EAC, IGAD, and COMESA, eight (8) countries namely Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda, submitted theirmnational biennial review reports, representing 67% submission rate. The overall average score for the region is 4.20 which indicates that region is on-track in meeting the Malabo commitments when assessed against the 3.94 benchmark for 2017.  This score is based on national reports of the 8 countries that submitted their reports. Among the 8 countries, five (5) are on-track in meeting Malabo commitments and these include: Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda. The other three (3) countries: Djibouti, Sudan and Tanzania are not ontrack.

Out of the seven commitment areas of Malabo assessed in this BR, the Eastern Africa region is on track in four commitment areas namely: i) Recommitment to CAADP process ii) Halving poverty through agriculture by 2025; iii) Boosting intra-African trade in agriculture commodities and iv) Enhancing Mutual accountability for actions and results.  The region needs to pay attention to other three commitment areas where it was not on-track. These are: i) Enhancing investment finance in agriculture; ii) Ending hunger by 2025; and iii) Enhancing resilience to climate variability.

Although the region has performed well, both by being on track to meet the CAADP/Malabo commitments and implementing the BR process, the fact that eight countries did not complete the process and submit their reports on schedule is a matter of concern. For full assessment and review of performance in future, the region needs to consider and implement the following recommendations: Provide adequate training and capacity building to countries by increasing the number of country BR experts, the intensity of training for both the trainers and experts at country level; Provide more support to countries that are facing challenges in implementing CAADP e.g. Eritrea, Somalia, South Sudan and Comoros. Not only do these countries need to be supported to implement CAADP but also to implement the BR mechanism. These countries will need special attention in terms of technical capacity for data collection, analysis and reporting. Countries and the region need to increase resources to improve data systems to adequately report on all CAADP/Malabo indicators.

Northern Africa

Included in this region are seven (7) countries namely: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Saharawi and Tunisia. Under the coordination of AMU and AUC, four (4) countries namely: Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia submitted their BR reports, representing 57% submission rate.  The average score for the region is 3.83, which indicates that region is not on-track in meeting the CAADP/ Malabo commitments when assessed against the 3.94 benchmark for 2017. The region score is based on data from the 4 countries that submitted their reports. Among those 4 countries, two (2) are on-track in meeting Malabo commitments and these include: Mauritania and Morocco. The other two (2) countries: Egypt and Tunisia are not ontrack. Poor performances in the region was justified by the fact that countries faced difficulty to inform on all the indicators and performances because of delay in engaging them. Furthermore, since Morocco joined the AU recently (January 2016) it has scored “0” on the Country CAADP Process Indicator based on the given criteria, even if the Moroccan Agricultural Policy is perfectly aligned with the CAADP principles.

Out of the seven (7) commitment areas of Malabo, Northern Africa Region is on track in four, namely i) Re-committing to CAADP process; ii) Halving poverty through agriculture by 2025; iii) Boosting intra-Africa trade in agriculture commodities; and iv) Enhancing Mutual accountability for actions and results. First, it was evident because the agricultural policy in these countries are aligned or have the same key principles as CAADP. Second, it is due to the ongoing policies toward engaging youth in the region, and also because of the high engagement of women in agriculture and agri-business sectors. Thirdly, the existence of policies that promote and encourage the intra-Africa trades.

The region needs to focus on the three other commitment areas where it was not on-track. These are: i) Enhancing investment finance in agriculture; ii) Ending hunger by 2025; and iii) Enhancing resilience to climate variability. Member states in the region are recommended to increase investment in agriculture and its efficiency especially by draining the private investment; strengthening social protection especially in rural areas; reducing the postharvest loss; and increasing investment in resilience building. Member states should also raise awareness and vulgarize the Malabo declaration while ensuring that targets in the Malabo commitments are domesticated their National Agriculture Investment Plans.

Southern Africa

Included in this region are twelve (12) countries namely: Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Seychelles, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Under the joint coordination of SADC and COMESA, all of these countries submitted their reports representing 100% submission rate. The overall average score for the region is 4.02, which indicates that region is on-track in meeting the CAADP/Malabo commitments when assessed against the 3.94 benchmark for 2017. Among the 12 countries, eight (08) are on-track and these include Botswana, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa and Swaziland. The other four (04) countries: Madagascar, Lesotho, Zambia and Zimbabwe) are not on-track.

Out of the seven (7) commitments of Malabo, Southern Africa is on-track in four, namely: i) Re-committing to CAADP process; ii) Halving poverty through agriculture by 2025; ii) Boosting intra-Africa trade in agriculture commodities; and iv) Enhancing Mutual accountability for actions and results.  It was evident that countries with relatively good agricultural data management systems seem to be performing better in the Biennial Review. Second, aligning and implementing policies and programmes based on CAADP principles contribute to better performance of the countries (meeting the biennial targets set in the Malabo/CAADP process and agriculture sector performance). Thirdly, openness to trade has contributed to good performance on intraregional trade in the region.

The region needs to pay attention to three commitments where it was not on-track. These are: i) Enhancing investment finance in agriculture; ii) Ending hunger by 2025; and iii) Enhancing resilience to climate variability. The region needs to consider and implement the following recommendations: - Member states should strengthen agricultural data collection and management systems to ensure that all Malabo Declarations goals and targets are reported on in future; -Member states should increase the quantity and quality of investments that improve and sustain the performance of the agriculture sector for ending hunger and poverty reduction; - Member states should domesticate the Malabo Declaration and targets into their NAIP; -Member states should increase investments in resilience building in order to make households resilient to climate and weather related shocks.

Western Africa

Included in this region are fifteen (15) countries namely; Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo. Under the coordination of ECOWAS, fourteen (14) countries have submitted their reports representing 93% submission rate. Only Guinea-Bissau did not submit its report. The average score for the region, based on the 14 reports submitted, is 3.62, which indicates that the region is not on-track in meeting the CAADP/ Malabo commitments when assessed against the 3.94 benchmark for 2017. Among the fourteen (14) countries, only five (5) are on-track and these include Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ghana, Mali and Togo.

Out of the seven (7) commitments of Malabo, Western Africa is on-track on four (4), namely: i) Commitment to CAADP Process; ii) Halving Poverty through Agriculture by 2025; iii) Intra-African Trade in Agricultural Commodities and Services; and iv) Enhancing Mutual Accountability for Actions and Results. The region’s good performance in CAADP processes and mutual accountability can be attributed to several region wide engagements ECOWAS has had with the countries, regional and country stakeholders as well as technical support provided by the ECOWAS Commission and its technical partners to its Member States. In the aspect of trade, ECOWAS and its partners have in place the existence of regional policies and regulations that promote trade as well as facilitate the implementation of such policies and regulations.

The region needs to pay attention to the three (5) other areas where it was not on track. These include: i) Investment Finance in Agriculture; ii) Ending Hunger; and iv) Enhancing resilience to Climate Variability.